## Hearing Perturbation Theory

In numerical linear algebra, we create ways for a computer to solve a linear system of equations $A\vec{x} = \vec{b}$. In doing so, we analyze how efficiently and accurately we can find the solution $\vec{x}$.

Perturbation theory concerns how much error we incur in the solution $\vec{x}$ when we perturb (spoil) the data $A$ and $\vec{b}$. A classic statement tells us that the amount of error depends on the condition number of the matrix $A$.

I will define and prove the statement, and help you understand it by “hearing” it.